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Fungal Infections - SPOROTRICHOSIS
Sporothrix schenckii, dimorphic fungus
RESERVOIR AND INCIDENCE
Distributed worldwide with sporadic outbreaks. Saprophyte that grows on soil or vegetation. Has been reported in horses, dogs, cats and many other species. 19 cases of Sporotrichosis have been reported in man following contact with feline abscesses or ulcers (12 of these were veterinarians).
Penetrating injury, or contact with plant or soil. Transmission from feline to man by direct contact with lesions (penetrating injury NOT required). Inhalation can lead to pulmonic disease.
DISEASE IN ANIMALS:
Lesions can be anywhere but are usually located on distal extremities, head, or base of tail. Appear as draining puncture wounds, cellulitis. Can ulcerate and become nodular with seropurulent exudate. May cavitate and expose muscle and bone. May lead to disseminated disease which is usually fatal
DISEASE IN MAN:
The most common clinical form is cutaneolymphatic; it begins with a nodule or pustule at the point where broken skin allowed inoculation. The infection may remain confined or may eventually spread and produce SC nodules along the enlarged lymph ducts. These nodules may ulcerate, and a gray or yellowish pus appears. Disseminated forms, which are rare, may give rise to localizations in different organs, especially the bones and joints, as well as in the mouth, nose, kidneys, or the SC tissue. Pulmonary sporotrichosis can be confused with TB.
Biopsy and histo fungal culture cytology of impression smear of exudate. Organisms are numerous in cats but are difficult to detect in man, horses, and dogs. Organism can also be found in feces of infected cat. Antigen tests are used to diagnose disseminated disease.
Potassium iodide, Amphotericin B, or itraconazole.
Gloves when handling infected animals. Wash with iodine or chlorhexidine.